[semester equivalent = 4.00 credits]



Debora Supplitt



Please view other courses offered by Debora Supplitt.

This course incorporates Observational Drawing Skills (ODS) based on drawing and design principles that guide participants through the process of creating successful, realistic looking, still life drawings.

As part of this course, Teacher-Artists will develop, support or advance their ODS through an extensive video course “Introduction To Advanced Observational Drawing.”  Please note that there is an extra cost of $100 to gain access to these (30) online teaching videos - constituting approximately 5 hours of step-by-step ODS content.


The lessons are open to all ability levels, from emerging to advance drawing skills. Lessons are broken down into a series of small concepts that build upon each other so that participants can practice each concept before incorporating it into their overarching still life project.


From hands on practice projects, exemplars and skill building, lesson plans will be developed for implementation for any studio and/or classroom setting. Participants will increase their visual literacy by learning to enhance and develop ODS techniques for finding accurate line angles, evaluating nuanced values, observing proportions, identifying plane and light breaks, and evaluating the design strength of a still life setup.        


This course is for those who want to transform any visual impressions from observation, establish an ongoing foundational skill set to transform images directly to drawing paper to achieve a realistic drawing. Bonus footage content is available at the end of many lessons for teachers/artist who wish to implement this material into any K-12 classrooms.


Course text: Speed, H. (1972) The Practice & Science of Drawing: Third Edition. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. Amazon $10.95: used $5.90. Kindle download $.99

Note: Please review course syllabus for additional materials fees associated with course.

LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon completion of this course, participants will have:

  1. A theoretical pedagogical foundation that supports the development of observational drawing skills (ODS).
  2. Enhanced knowledge and understanding of the use and applications of ODS.
  3. Developed curriculum guides, lessons and a referral resource list that supports ODS.
  4. Developed Exemplars for use with classroom curriculum and/or studio portfolio.

Completion of all specified assignments is required for issuance of hours or credit. The Heritage Institute does not award partial credit.

Completing the basic assignments (Section A. Information Acquisition) for this course automatically earns participant’s their choice of CEUs (Continuing Education Units), or Washington State Clock Hours or Oregon PDUs. The Heritage Institute offers CEUs and is an approved provider of Washington State Clock Hours and Oregon PDUs.



Continuing Education Quarter credits are awarded by Antioch University Seattle (AUS). AUS requires 75% or better for credit at the 400 level and 85% or better to issue credit at the 500 level. These criteria refer both to the amount and quality of work submitted.

  1. Completion of Information Acquisition assignments 30%
  2. Completion of Learning Application assignments 40%
  3. Completion of Integration Paper assignment 30%


CREDIT/NO CREDIT (No Letter Grades or Numeric Equivalents on Transcripts)
Antioch University Seattle (AUS) Continuing Education Quarter credit is offered on a Credit/No Credit basis; neither letter grades nor numeric equivalents are on a transcript. 400 level credit is equal to a "C" or better, 500 level credit is equal to a "B" or better. This information is on the back of the transcript.

AUS Continuing Education quarter credits may or may not be accepted into degree programs. Prior to registering determine with your district personnel, department head or state education office the acceptability of these credits for your purpose.



Course text: Speed, H. (1972) The Practice & Science of Drawing: Third Edition. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. Amazon $10.95: used $5.90. Kindle download $.99 Note: Please review course syllabus for additional materials fees associated with course.

  • The Practice and Science of Drawing (Dover Art Instruction)
    ISBN# 0486228703
    by Harold Speed
    Dover Publications

    Buy from Amazon


Introduction to Observational Drawing Video Access- Cost: $100. The Da Vinci Initiative; video course instructor: Amanda (Mandy) Hallenius. Sign up for full video access through: Additional Materials Needed: Additional materials required: • Binder (for lesson plans and reference printouts from online readings) • Charcoal (Nitram Amazon or Blick) Box of soft, med., hard (15 sticks total) • Sanding Paper (200-300 grit) • Pencil • Notebook to record time developing drawing • Paper (Strathmore 500 Charcoal paper white) • Kneaded Eraser • Drawing Board (Foam Core size 18X24 White) • Masking Tape • Wooden Skewer (can be found in a grocery store) or Knitting needle (thin) • Small White Objects to Draw (white egg and white cup) • Adjustable Light, Small Table Lamp • Optional – Easel • See Online Resource Bibliography for ordering information. Course text: Speed, H. (1972) The Practice & Science of Drawing: Third Edition. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. Amazon $10.95: used $5.90.



Assignments done in a course forum will show responses from all educators active in the course. Feel free to read and respond to others comments. 

Assignment #1: Introduce Yourself

Download and gain access to the video course “Introduction To Advanced Observational Drawing”

Introduction and Materials: Online Video Course Community:

  • Become familiar with the video course:
  • Take the initial online tour of the platform
  • Video Course overview in five (5) sections:

    Section 1:  About the Da Vinci Initiative: Lecture 1-4
    Section 2:  Setting Up A Still Life: Lecture 5
    Section 3:  Blocking In-Your Design: Lecture 6-15
    Section 4:  Shading/Rendering/Turning Form: Lecture 16-25
    Section 5:  Finishing the Still Life:  Lecture 26-30
    Based on the lecture you are accessing from the video lecture, refer to the online bibliography resources list to download, print, and/or place in your materials binder any resources that may apply to your studio or classroom setting.

Introduce Yourself:  
Write 1-2 pages introducing yourself and include the following:

  • Describe your professional situation and/or studio practice.
  • Include reasons for being interested in this course, what you expect to take away, your general level of experience and proficiency with Observational Drawing and what drawing concepts are taught within your current curriculum.


  • Gather drawing materials (see materials resource list)
  • Keep a personal log of hours spent while drawing, viewing videos, and accessing online materials.

Assignment #2: Introduction & Materials

Lecture 1-5

  • View online video course Section 1-Introduction and Materials: Lecture 1-5
  • From the online bibliography explore the lesson plans from the Da Vinci Initiative.
  • Create the low cost light box.
  • Access materials and supplies needed, plus ordering resource from course bibliography.
  • For your “Observational Drawing” resource binder create one of the following: Using either an Excel Spread Sheet or Word Document create a classroom material list needed for teaching Observational Drawing to students.Include vendor, item cost, total cost, and add sales tax plus possible shipping costs.


  • Create a material replacements list. Include Vendor, item cost, total cost add sales tax and possible shipping costs.

Assignment #3: Pre-Assessment

Pre-Assessment/Formative Base line drawing:

  • Set up a still life in the light box according to video lecture #5.
  • On a half sheet of drawing paperdraw the still life image with charcoal.
  • Use any method you choose or are comfortable with.
  • This should be an easy fun filled quick activity reflecting your present skill set.
  • Label and date this drawing Pre-Assessment.
  • When completed take a jpeg image of your pre-assessment drawing
  • Print a copy for you resource binder.

    Write a one (1)-page response to your initial drawing discussing the step-by-step order or process you took to complete your drawing.  Also discuss your overall impression of your pre-formative drawing, any success and/or frustrations you may have experienced during this initial drawing. Include the time this drawing took to complete. Remember this is a pre-assessment and not to be judged by anyone but the teacher/artist. Attach your drawing as a jpeg image to your assignment.

Assignment #4: Setting Up A Still Life

View online video course:
Section 2:  Lecture #5 Setting up a Still Life:

  • Materials needed:
  • Box that controls light source
  • Light source
  • Egg (ovoid)
  • White cup
  • Salt to place egg/ovoid

Create and experiment with different still life set-ups.

Section 3:
Blocking-in Your Drawing; Lectures #6-15.
Keep an ongoing log sheet of the time it takes you to set up and draw for each session.
Select one of the following two pedagogical models (Bloom’s or Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence) then access one of Lesson Plan Template sites from the Online Bibliography at the end of this syllabus.  Access the Lesson Plan Template from Da Vinci Initiative web site:

This Pedagogical model and lesson plan format will best guide your curriculum framework and lesson plan development.
Create a 1-2 page word document outlining the pedagogical model chosen, why and the possible lesson plan template that may fit into your needs. This chosen model will be used to develop your future ODS’s lesson plan.
The 19th century Master drawings were done as studies or preliminary work leading up to the creation of a finished painting, some artists that did create drawings as finished works. Examine the finished drawings of the French Impressionist, Léon Lhermitte, (see online bibliography). Write a (1-2) page paper discussing his drawings, paintings and an overview reflection about his work.

Assignment #5: Accurate Measurements of Composition

Lecture 6 Accurate Measurements of Composition:
Using your chosen lesson plan format, develop one lesson on Comparative Measurement and Visual Literacy or how to incorporate STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math). 
Generate a 1-2 page document that outlines Comparative Measurement.  Break down the  skills and explain how you would introduce this concept to any small group of students, artists or to a peer.

Assignment #6: Blocking-in Your Drawing

Section #3 Blocking-in Your Drawing: Video lectures 6-15

  • Begin drawing your still life with the video lecture.Take your time and pause the video when needed.
  • Read: The Practice and Science of Drawing: Line Chapter 4, 11 & 12
  • Using your lesson plan template of choice, develop one (1) lesson plan on how to draw any object within your classroom or studio. Draw that object.Use the notional space concept and break down the drawing by using inferred fraction and angles of lines. Using classroom materials (ruler, protractor…) how would you introduce or discuss how to plot angles and big lines within an Observational Drawing.
    In a one-two (1-2) page paper, discuss the materials, adapted materials, conceptual breakdown and the use of fractions, angles of lines, fine motor skills and refined fine motor skills. Remember to break these concepts into a format discussing step-by-step hierarchical format.

    Remember to keep an ongoing log sheet of the time it takes you to set up and draw for each session.

Assignment #7: The Practice & Science of Drawing

Access remaining online course videos 16-25
Read: The Practice and Science of Drawing: Chapters 13, 14 and 15.
From your chosen lesson plan format create a Value Scale Lesson Plan and Worksheet with  examples. See Online Bibliography for supportive resources.
Create a Value Scale Reference Card that can be used in the studio or classroom.
In a one-two (1-2) page paper discussing the steps for creating this value scale card and the process, technique and skill you used to implement this scale. Also discuss how to use the value scale as a tool in drawing and why an artist uses values with observational drawings.
Make a Still life composition using shapes cut out of black, white and grey construction paper.  Draw the composition with charcoal or pencil. In a one-two (1-2) page paper discuss the steps for creating this composition and your drawing process.

Assignment #8: Practice & Science of Drawing

Read: The Practice and Science of Drawing: Chapters 16.

Continue with your Observational Drawing online videos: Section 4: Shading/Rendering/Turning Lectures #16-30.
Continue to render and finish your Observational Drawing.
When the drawing is completed write a 1-2 page response paper outlining the hierarchical process, total time spent drawing, your reflections, success and struggles for producing this drawing.
Compare and contrast your pre-assessment formative drawing from assignment #3.
Attach a jpeg of your finished observational drawing to your assignment.
Examine the following two 19th-century studies and finished paintings of  Frederick Lord Leighton and Edward Burne-Jones (links in online bibliography) and the work preliminary to them. Answer the question: Why did the artist create this preliminary work? In a 2-3 page paper discuss gesture, expression, emotional thrust, lighting, composition, and accurate contours.



In this section you will apply your learning to your professional situation. This course assumes that most participants are classroom teachers who have access to students. If you do not have a classroom available to you, please contact the instructor for course modifications. Assignments done in a course forum will show responses from all educators active in the course. Feel free to read and respond to others comments. 


Assignment #9: Lesson Plan

Using the Da Vinci Lesson Plan format found at: or any lesson plan template you choose.
Develop three to five (3-5) lesson plans on the process of Observational Drawing. Develop these lessons with the idea of integration into one part of the common core curriculum or “STEAM” (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and/or Math). Approach this assignment for your particular grade level, setting, or studio practice. This unit may include activities you have developed as a result of this course.
Given the Inquiry Cycle from the “Online Bibliography” found at the end of the syllabus create a unit of study that is supported and enhanced with observational drawing. Post a three to five (3-5) page Word document, a mind map, a Prezi or a Haiku Deck presentation of your unit plan.
Develop a solid base online artist portfolio of the drawings you have created from this course and include any other Observational Drawings you have created within an Atelier setting. Attach formatted portfolio web site URL to access for review.

Assignment #10: Unit Plan or Paper

Implement the unit plan you developed in assignment # 9 and write a three to five (3-5) page overview, include reflection and possible adjustments for each lesson. Please include mention of any specific student achievements and include samples of work products.
Write a three to five (3-5) page paper discussing the experience of participating either in an Atelier or studio setting, your process for Observational Drawing, and how this experience has altered your drawing skills and/or teaching skills. Provide an overview of the program you participated in or with. Include an overview of this course outline and what skills were introduced, hours completed, for each session and how this course contributed and enhanced your Observational Drawing skills.
Write a (3-5) page paper examining the work of one of the following Dutch Masters: Willem Claesz Heda, Pieter Claesz, Jan van Huysum, or Abraham van Beyeren (see online bibliography). These master artist implemented techniques similar to those used for your still life drawing. Discuss methods or techniques the Old Master would use. These techniques should be applicable to all themes and subjects of which may be explored in art.

Assignment #11: (500 Level ONLY)

In addition to the 400 level assignments, complete one of the following:        

Option A)
Conduct online research for articles that point to the advantages and challenges of using Observational Drawing for instruction, and summarize your findings in a two to three (2-3) page paper.
Option B)

Prepare and present your unit of study or portfolio from assignment #9 in a Power Point, Prezi, or Haiku Deck format to your faculty, collaborative group, or to a colleague. Accompany your presentation with a one to two (1-2) paper, in which you discuss any comments, adjustments, or ideas that may have been generated by your presentation.
Option C)

Another assignment of your own design with the instructor’s prior approval.


Assignment #12: (Required for 400 and 500 Level)

(Please do not write this paper until you've completed all of your other assignments)

Write a 350-500 word Integration Paper answering these 5 questions:

  1. What did you learn vs. what you expected to learn from this course?
  2. What aspects of the course were most helpful and why?
  3. What further knowledge and skills in this general area do you feel you need?
  4. How, when and where will you use what you have learned?
  5. How and with what other school or community members might you share what you learned?


Please indicate by email to the instructor if you would like to receive comments on your assignments.


Debora Supplitt M.F.A-A.Ed./M.Ed. received her Masters (M.Ed.) and Bachelor of Art (B.A.) degree from San Francisco State University and Masters of Fine Arts in Art Education (M.F.A.-A.Ed,) from Boston University. She has worked with students of all levels, including preschool, elementary, middle school, high school and professional educators, since 1980. She is certified in Washington, Oregon and California in Pre/K-12-Adult Special and Elementary Education and is highly qualified in the core areas of Art, Music, Reading, and Special Education as well as being a trained Intervention Specialist. Debora knows the importance of providing a creative environment where all students and teachers can thrive. Presently she is working in her dream position as a full time middle school Art Teacher. Debora provides classroom teachers with the tools and resources needed to integrate art into the daily curriculum and is always busy developing new, creative and fun workshops for teachers. She is passionate about providing exciting, meaningful, useful and fun filled continuing education for all teachers.




Online Bibliography
Online Resources and Materials to help support video lecture presentations.

Assignment #2
Supports Video Lecture 2-3
Lesson Plans: Da Vinci Initiative: Download any lesson plans from this site.

Aristides, J. (2010) Charcoal Rendering: Paper

Assignment #3
Supports Video Lecture 1-4
Aristides, J. (2010) How to Sharpen Charcoal

Dwyer, D. (2010) Studio Lighting

Afass, S.B. (2014) Udemy Blog

Proko, S. (2014) How To Hold and Control Your Pencil

University of Utah,(2013)  Department of Mathematics: Perspective in Drawing

Aristides, J. (2011) How to Draw a Circle or an Ellipse

University of Delaware: (2011) Foundations of Art; Measuring

Conlon,R. (2011) Blog Spot: Measured Drawing

University of Utah Department of Mathematics(nd). Perspective of Circles

Assignment #4
Choose a Pedagogical Model:
Da Vinci Initiative Lesson Plan model (2014)
McKnight, H. (2013) Multiple Intelligence Video and Chart
Multiple Intelligence Lesson Plan Template
Blooms Newly Revised Taxonomy: University of Tanku, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Blooms Newly Revised Taxonomy Kurwongbah State School, Queensland Australia
Blooms Taxonomy Lesson Plan Template: Free Download (register to get free download)
Sigmon, C.  Blooms Lesson Plan Template:
Homeschooling Lesson Plan Template:
Rohrer, K. (2012) Incredible Art Department, (2012)  Lesson Plan Template for all grades:
Any lesson plan template of your choosing. Provide URL address or attached image of template.
Examine the finished drawings of the French Impressionist, Léon Lhermitte, (see online bibliography).  BBC Your Paintings: View slide show of 12 paintings.

Supports Video Lecture #10:
Three examples of Follow Through Lines drawn by Leonardo DaVinci

Impey, J. Art Room 104 (2014) Art Room Blog

Cousins, C. (2015) Looking at the Images: Phi Grid Vs. The Rule of Thirds
Design Shack Blog post.

Supports Lecture Video #15 Shadow Shapes:
Kostel, H. (2013)  Light and Shadow Practice worksheet

Drawing & Painting Lessons with Edward A Burke

Assignment #8
Section 4: Shading/Rendering/Turning Form
Supports Video Lectures #16-25

Value Scale Worksheet

Practice Value Shading Worksheet

Shading Worksheet with Rubric

Art Instruction Blog (2009) Value Study with three values: Dark Medium and Light (2015) Value Scale Using Lines Worksheets:

Furton, (2014)Studio Art: Value Study and technique

Costello, E. (2012) The Art of Erin Costello. Example of 3 Value Still Life

Hopcroft, M. (2013) Another Paper cut Value Study. Examples of Atelier artist paper cut value study

Supports Video Lecture #21:
Understanding Shadow and Light: Rendering Form Closer light source

Boyer, S.L. (2009) Light Source, Cast Shadows and the Axis Reference sheet

Blend (2014). Blend Space Light and Shadow Reference Sheet

Section 5-Finishing the Still Life:
Supports Video lectures 26-30

Rowland, J.  (2014).  7 Secrets That Will Add Depth to Your Drawings
Examine the following two 19th-century studies and finished paintings:

Frederick Lord Leighton: study of Dorothy Deane and his completed painting of Phoebe

The Art Tribune:
Art Renewal: Phoebe Oil:
Tate: Composition Study for ‘The Merciful Knight’ 1863.
Google Art Project: Edward Burne-Jones: ‘The Merciful Knight’ Painting

Assignment #9 Lesson & Unit Plan
Develop a Three to four lesson/unit plan. Download the following sites to help support your unit plan.

Da Vinci outline for lesson development:
Elementary model to access:
Middle School and or High School access the following:  5 E’s Learning Framework:
Middle School and Secondary Teachers access:  The Inquiry Ladder: The Inquiry Process:

All educator’s access and download:  Apps for the Learning Inquiry Model:

Questions to support the development of your unit. Access and download the Inquiry Cycle Lesson Plan for the Wall:

Color image of Inquiry Cycle to download:

Classroom examples for unit plans can be access at the following sites.  Adapt this model to fit your curriculum needs and include the apps selected.  Pro Diva Blog:
PYP Qatar Academy Approaches to Teaching/Planning
The IB Inquiry Cycle: International School Site:

Assignment #10:
Please write a (3-5) page paper examining the work of your chosen master artists who would have implemented similar techniques used for your still life drawing.

Willem Claesz Heda: BBC, Your Paintings: Six paintings by Willem Claesz. Heda: View 6 paining Slide show:
Google Art Project:  Willem Claez Heda
Pieter Clasez: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection (2014):  Pieter Claesz:
Still Life with a Skull and a Writing Quill:
Jan van Huysum: The J. Paul Getty Museum: Jan van Huysum: (ND)
Vase with Flowers:
Abraham van Beyeren: BBC: Your Paintings: Abraham van Beyeren: View 16 painting slide show.


Vocabulary List

Observational Drawing


Aerial/Atmospheric Perspective:
The means by which the illusion of atmospheric distance and depth is created by rendering objects in background space with less edge and value contrast.  May also be accompanied by a shift from warmer to cooler hues. softer focus or lighter value.

The reduction or simplification of an image or object to an essential aspect (geometric or organic) of its form or content.

An imaginary straight line that indicates movement and the direction of movement.

Objects or undetermined spaces surrounding the main subject of a work.
The most distant zone of space in three-dimensional illusion

A light source positioned behind a person or object that can create a silhouette or separate the person or object from the background.

Base Tone:
The darkest tone on a form, located on that part of the surface that is turned away from rays of light.

Cast Shadow:
The shadow thrown by a form onto an adjacent or nearby surface in a direction away from the light source.

A word borrowed from Italian ("light and shade" or "dark") referring to the modeling of volume by depicting light and shade by contrasting them boldly. This is one means of strengthening an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface, and was an important topic among artists of the Renaissance.

The organization and interaction of shapes, forms, lines, patterns, light and color.

Cone of Vision:
The visual area represented by the drawing usually corresponding to a normal person’s vision.

The subject and meaning of a work of art.

Continuous Line Drawing:
A drawing in which the implement remains in uninterrupted contact with the picture plane creating enclosed shapes.

The outline and other visible edges of a mass, figure or object.

Contour Line (Drawing):
A single line that represents the edge of a form or group of forms and suggests three-dimensional quality indicating the thickness as well as height and width of the form it describes. Contour line drawing uses subtle overlapping planes.

In linear perspective, parallel lines in nature appear to converge (come together) as they recede to a point on the Eye Level or Horizon Line. into the picture plane.

Core Shadow: 
The darkest area of an object.

Cross-Contour Lines:
Multiple, curving parallel lines running over the surface of an object horizontally and/or vertically that describe its surface qualities. Much like wire framing in 3D design.

Cross Hatching:
A drawing technique to shade an object using two or more networks of parallel lines in a gradual angular progression (to achieve a build up of complex value).

Depiction of shapes and forms on a surface chiefly by means of lines. Color and shading may be included. A major fine art technique in itself, drawing is the basis of all pictorial representation, and an early step in most art activities. Though an integral part of most painting, drawing is generally differentiated from painting by the dominance of line over mass.

The rim or border, the place where two things meet: the background (negative space) meets surface of objects (positive space),  a “tone” or “value” meets a different tone/value.

Eye Level:
In linear perspective, the height at which the eyes are located in relation to the ground plane. Standing creates a high eye-level while sitting creates a lower one. In most views, the eye level will match a horizon line. The same as horizon line. All vanishing points in one and two point perspective are positioned on the eye level.

The primary or positive shape in a drawing. A shape that is noticeably separated from the background. The figure is the dominant, advancing shape in a figure/ground relationship.

Figure-Ground Relationship:
An arrangement in which positive and negative shapes alternatively command attention. Also known as a positive/negative relationship.

The “nearest” space represented to the viewer.  The “front” of the visual stage.
An exaggeration of perspective in which elements nearer to the viewer are shown much larger, and elements at a distance appear much reduced in size.

A technique for producing the illusion of an object’s extension into space by contracting its form. A way of representing a subject or an object so that it conveys the illusion of depth -- so that it seems to go back into space.

Freehand Drawing:
Drawn by hand, without the use of any mechanical device -- without the aid of a straightedge, compass, protractor, French curves, computer equipment, etc. This is the opposite of mechanical drawing.

A total mental picture, or conception, of a form.\

Any gradual transition from one tone to another. In drawing, shading through gradation can be used to suggest three-dimensional illusion.

A spontaneous representation of the dominant physical and expressive stance of an object. The act of making a sketch with relatively loose arm movements (gestures) -- with the large muscles of the arm, rather than with the small muscles of the hand and wrist; Or a drawing made this way.

A framework or pattern of crisscrossed or parallel lines. A lattice. When crisscrossed, lines are usually horizontal and vertical; and when lines are diagonal, they are usually at right angles to each other.

The actual flat surface of a drawing, synonymous with a drawing’s opaque picture plane. In a three dimensional illusion, ground also refers to the area behind an object (or figure).

Half Tone:
After the highlight and quarter tone, the next brightest area of illumination on a form. The halftone is located on that part of the surface that is parallel to the rays of light.

The brightest area of illumination on a form, which appears on that part of the surface most perpendicular to the light source.

Horizon Line:
In linear perspective, the line on which all vanishing points are positioned. More accurately described as the eye line or eye level.

The placement of images within a two dimensional format.

Light Tone:
After highlight, the next light value of illumination on a form. Sometimes called indirect light.

A mark with length and direction. An element of art which refers to the continuous mark made on some surface by a moving point. Types of line include: vertical, horizontal, diagonal, straight or ruled, curved, bent, angular, thin, thick or wide, interrupted (dotted, dashed, broken, etc.), blurred or fuzzy, controlled, freehand, parallel, hatching, meandering, and spiraling. Often it defines a space, and may create an outline or contour, define a silhouette; create patterns, or movement, and the illusion of mass or volume. It may be two-dimensional (as with pencil on paper) three-dimensional (as with wire) or implied (the edge of a shape or form).

Line gesture:
A type of gesture drawing that describes interior forms, utilizing line rather than mass.

Local Value:
The basic tonality of an object’s surface. regardless of incidental lighting effects or surface texture.

A visible trace or impression on a surface, such as a line, a dot, spot, stain, scratch, etc.

The density or weight of an object.

In composition: to block-in forms with the purpose of achieving an overall organization of visual weight\

Mass gesture:
A system of broad, gestural marks used to create density and weight in a form.

Picture Plane:
The flat, two-dimensional surface on which a drawing is made.

Any flat level or surface.

Denotes the illusion of three dimensionality or movement into the picture plane as it relates to the flat, two-dimensional nature of the picture plane itself. We refer to this as plastic space in contrast to perspective space.

Plumb Line: 
A line with a plumb attached to it, used for finding or determining the vertical and an upright surface.

Positive Space:
The shape of an object that serves as the subject for a drawing. The relationship between positive shape and negative space is sometimes called figure/ground, foreground/background relationship.

A term that refers to the “accurate” relationship of part to part in a realistic drawing. It can also refer to the expressive purposes, e.g. Distortion of proportion to consciously or unconsciously achieve a subjective intention. Proportion also relates to a sense of balance.

Reflective Light:
The relatively weak light that bounces off a nearby surface onto the shadowed side of a form.

Relative Scale:
A way in which to represent and judge the spatial position of an object in three-dimensional illusionistic space so that forms drawn smaller appear further away and forms that are drawn larger appear closer.

A drawing that attempts to achieve a near-likeness to the objects being drawn. Drawings which strive to achieve the qualities of realism.

A depiction or an interpretation. Also, a drawing in perspective of a proposed structure. (Rendering can be used either as a noun or as a verb.)

A ratio or proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship  between a representation to that which it represents (its actual size), such as maps, building plans, and models.

Shallow Space:
A relatively flat space, having weight and width but limited depth.

A contained, edged-in area on the two-dimensional surface. Or an area that suggests containment. A shape is always interdependent with another element (shape or space) in the composition.

The visual measurements of objects and spaces between objects.

Any dark two-dimensional shape seen against a light background.

A quick drawing that loosely captures the appearance or action of a place or situation. Sketches are often done in preparation for larger, more detailed works of art.

The distance between images or points in a drawing. We contain space when defining edges of interrelated shapes.

Station Point:
In linear perspective, the fixed position a person occupies in relation to the subject that is being drawn.

The actual physical structure or texture of the drawing paper containing degrees of smoothness, gloss, or roughness.

The actual or suggestive surface quality of a two-dimensional shape or three-dimensional volume. Texture can be created by using skillful drawing techniques, erasure, rubbing, or employing specific materials such as sand.

Two Dimensional Space:
The flat, actual surface area of a drawing, which is the product of the length times the width of the drawing paper support.

Three Dimensional Space:
The actual space in the environment, and the representation of it in the form of pictorial illusion.

Black, white and the gradations of gray tones between them. The relative degree of light and dark.

Value Relativity:
The changing visual identity of values in juxtaposition, sometimes called value contrast.

Value Scale:
The gradual range from white through gray to black.

Value Pattern:
The arrangement or organization of values that control compositional movement and create a unifying effect throughout a work of art.

Visual Weight:
The potential of any element or area of a drawing to attract the eye.

The overall size of an object, and by extension the quantity of three-dimensional space it occupies.